It’s also called Landslide. Landslides can happen in many ways. In nature, landslides can be observed in our vineyard, in our garden, in our forest, in our field. Landslides usually occur on sloping terrain.
The thickness of the sliding/ flowing mass varies. The highest point of the landslide is called the peak of the landslide and the lowest point is called the heel of the landslide. At the peak, there will be a decrease in land elevation. At the heel point, there will be a mass material build-up that flows by landslide and slides. The peak and middle of the heel is where the landslide mass is at its thickest. The thickness of the landslide mass may be 1 meter, may be 10 meters. The width of the length of the landslide mass also starts at a few meters and can reach hundreds of meters. Landslides can occur naturally or in different ways. In order for a landslide to occur, some conditions must come together. It is necessary to have loose units on the ground that trigger landslides such as clay, silt, water. Especially water drainage surface environment and rain water removal from the land with structures such as ditches and canals prevents landslides.
When landslides are in nature on open land, they do not harm people and the structures that people make, but if there are buildings, houses, barns, bridges, schools, mosques on the land, they can harm property and lives. For this reason, it is necessary to make soil surveys before building a site and to put the risks of landslides. These ground surveys should be carried out carefully and all slope stability calculations should be put forward. Otherwise, a landslide in a stationary state can be activated by building loads. It is necessary to show the same attention in the foundation excavations during the construction phase of the constructions. During the excavation, risks should be calculated and reparation measures should be taken.
There are a number of engineering methods for detecting landslides. These are geologic, geophysical methods that are cheap and easy to apply. Depths containing loose water can be found in the terrain by seismic refraction-masw. Seismic velocities can be calculated for each meter and centimeter and the gliding plane can be determined. Another method is electrical resistivity tomography, which we call ERT. It is a multi-electrode electrical method. At least 24 electrodes are used. This electrode number is 48 most of the time. Sometimes that number can be 72. The number of electrodes and the range of electrodes increases according to the depth and precision of the work performed. In this method, color resistivity tomography is obtained. This data is studied by experienced engineers and landslide geometry is created. The most common method is to drill the ground. Drilling method is continuously tested and samples are taken at the same time. With the borehole created, landslide mechanization is solved. The other most expensive and long-lasting method is the inclinometer method. In this method, a specially manufactured plastic pipe is placed in the drilling well. This pipe is channeled. The meter is saved by downloading the device. The shift points are determined by measuring weekly or monthly periods.
As a result, the subject of landslides is one of the natural and artificial disasters that can happen to the son of man. Landslide research should be done meticulously in the areas to be settled and constructed.