General Characteristics And Stratigraphy Of The Field Of Study
General features and stratigraphy of the study area quaternary aged units surfaces in the examination area. Quaternary aged alluvial sediments from the stratigraphic units identified within the general stratigraphic sequence surface in the region. There are palezoic old Kurtköy formation (Oku),Akveren formation (Ka), Atbaşı formation(Tpea), Korucu formation(Tk), Çaycuma formation (Teç), Soğuksu formation(Osh) from bottom to top in and around the region. At the top is the Karapürçek formation (TQk), and at the top is the alluvial formation (Qal).
Kurtköy Formation (Arrow)
In previous studies, Önalan(1982) examined the unit named under different names under the name ‘Kurtköy formation’ and determined the age of the formation as Ordovician. Located in the northwestern parts of Gebze, the unit has its best outcrops along the Yumrukaya Creek and Sarp Creek to the east of Gaziler Hill, west of Beylik Mountain, north of Küçük Beylik Mountain, north of Mudurnu Hill (Önalan, 1981). At the bottom of the Paleozoic hoard in the vicinity of Gebze and above the unit whose base is not visible was the Ordovician old Aydos formation associated with the concordance.
Akveren Formation (KTa)
It was first used by Ketin and Gümüş(1963) to describe the Akveren formation to the limestone levels that offer wide spread in the western and Central Black Sea. The same unit was named ALTINLI (1968) Şemsettin limestone; MTA (1999) used the name Akveren formation. In this study, the name Akveren formation was adopted. The unit forms a bumpy topography depending on its lithological properties. In the investigation area, martyrdom is surfaced north of the elevation extending from The Hill to the Steep Hill. The uplift where the TV transmitting stations are located on the steep hill is covered by this unit. It presents a harsh morphology in areas where limestone levels have prospered. The aquifer formation consists of clayey limestone, marn, limestone, and partially carbonated sandstone levels. The dominant lithology is clayey limestone. Thin and medium stratification is common. The limestone surfaces offer massive or thick stratification in places. White is the typical color of dirty white or cream. Calcite veins or calcite filled in places. It is concordant with the Peksimet formation at the bottom and the Ranger formation at the top. Ground-grade transition and upper levels are monitored. It offers a thickness of 200-250 m in the area. The thickness of the examination area is around 150-200 m. The unit shell environment is sedimentary. Clayey limestone and micritic limestone levels as well as sandstone and marn levels are typical signs of turbiditic currents and a moving seafloor. Detailed paleontological investigations were carried out in previous studies (Altınlı 1968, Çakır 1999,et al). The fossil findings from these studies indicate that the Aquarian formation was deposited during the campaign-Lower Lutesian (Upper Cretaceous-Eocene) time period. The thickness of the weathering zone on the surface is about 1.00 m at most.
Ranger Formation (Tk)
The unit consists of a succession of claystone, marn and sandstone, thin and medium thick strata. The strength of the sandstone levels in the areas where the sandstone levels are well cemented has enabled it to form teeth and elevations in the topography. The claystone is greenish grey, the marn levels are cream grey and the sandstone levels are yellow-dirty yellow in appearance. The sandstones are cemented with carbonate in places, and the grovak is sometimes composed of mudstone. Especially the levels of claystone and marn are impervious to erosion and are unstoppable in areas where the slope of the slope increases. Sandstone level is more durable and stable than others. In the claystone levels, decays of carbonate and intermediate levels of carbonate are monitored. Mica (Muscovite-serizite) enrichment is observed in the transition from sandstone to mudstone levels. Fossils and lithological features compiled from carbonate levels within the unit indicate that the deep sea environment is sedimentary. The continental slope is sedimentary, where turbiditic currents are active. Fossils compiled from within the unit indicate that the Ranger formation was of lower – middle Lutesian (Eocene) age (Cakir 1999).
Horsehead Formation (Tpea)
Decked shale, marn and clay stones with sandstone and limestone were named Horbasi formation (Sinop-Ayancık) by Ketin and Gümüş (1963) due to the village of Horbasi. On the Kocaeli Peninsula outcropping in the same age range and similar type of rock units in the northern areas (Sile and the East) Baikal (1943) by the Eocene epoch “Marni blue” and “grey sandstones”; in the southern areas (Gebze–Izmit North) Gold (1968), “the pattern has been investigated under the name of the protective. Although it has a measured stratigraphic cross section (Altınlı, 1968), in this study, the name “Horsehead formation” was adopted, which is commonly used for these individuals, in order to ensure the unity of the name. The unit is widely monitored in areas specified for the Akverene formation. As the type location of the unit, Yarımca-Kalburca Village Road route can be given. The unit, type cross section, is The Guardian village. The unit is gradually transitive with the Akveren formation at the bottom and the Çaycuma formation at the top. The thickness of the unit is variable, 50-500m. there are among.
The unit formed in the decolonization of claystone and shale of volcanic intermediate doped sandstone.It was named by Tokay (1954-1956) because of the District of Çaycuma. The unit was surveyed within the Ranger formation by altınlı (1968). The Izmit-Hereke line is widespread in the north and is limited to Sile. The type location for the unit is the areas covered north of the Izmit Yarımca line. In the upper levels of the Ranger formation, the amount of sandstone is increased. The formation is therefore generally composed of a thick layer of sandstone with a thin middle layer and siltstone with a green – greenish grey color and a thin layer of CL yesilstone. Thick layer sandstones are generally located on the lower surface of the unit. Çaycuma formation is gradually transitive with Ranger formation at the bottom.
Karapürçek Formation (TQk)
The unit was surveyed in the Belgrade formation on the Kocaeli Peninsula. Gebze, Darıca, Bayramoğlu area, Izmit west of the village of Ovacık Southeast and the Black Sea coast are the faces. Its formation was determined to be in the tertiary-quaternary time interval. The type location for the unit can be given as the northwest of the town of Darica. The unit consists of loosely attached red yellowish coffee and greenish grey conglomerate, gravelly sandstone, sandstone, siltstone claystone and Marn. The pebbles are poorly sized and the siltstone is found as lenses within the claystone and sandstones. Grains are found in a round semi-round State. All units older than him at the bottom are incompatible. On the top are alluvial sediments. The thickness of the unit varies between 3-30 m. It varies between individuals forming itself laterally and vertically. The unit must be represented by stream and fan sediments.
Soğuksu Formation (Os)
The best places to see this unit are Kiliselik Creek and Sakaoğlu Creek, which flow south from Çamdağ (K-NW of Hendek district). The Coldwater formation consists of fine-medium-layer sandstone-shale with a grayish Yesil and purple colour alternation. The sandstones are medium-thick in the lower section. Parallel and wavy lamination in the unit is advanced. Drying cracks are observed with wave ripili.The unit, whose base cannot be seen, gradually switches to the Aydos formation at the top.The thickness of the unit is 2500 m according to land observations. it is estimated that it may be. No fossils have been found in the unit. The lower levels of the unit are shelf, while the mid-to-upper levels represent a tidal-effective delta environment.