In summary it consists of two stages. The first stage is data collection from the land the second stage is the preparation of ground data report and geotechnical report in the light of data collected from the land. 1999
What Are The Stages Of Soil Survey?
In summary it consists of two stages. The first stage is land data collection, the second stage is the preparation of ground data report and geotechnical report in the light of the data collected from the land.
Soil Survey Regulation
Before and after the 1999 Marmara earthquake, it is useful to separate the regulations. Prior to the August 17, 1999 marmara earthquake, ground surveys were carried out in important projects, but there were limited laws and regulations.
Many zoning laws and regulations were issued after the August 17 earthquake. Dozens of laws and regulations on ground surveying have been published in the run-up to the earthquake regulation, which went into effect in 2019. The development and evolution of soil surveys continued. Currently, the latest laws and regulations are used in all ground research studies. All public bodies supervise these studies within the framework of the given authority.
Ground Surveying Firms
The companies established by geological and geophysical engineers conduct ground surveying. Time ground surveying firms, Civil Engineers also establish. In every province of our country, the companies doing soil survey are active. Now there are companies that do soil survey on the basis of districts and neighborhoods.
Approximate Cost Of Ground Surveying
Ground surveying costs vary according to the quality and number of works performed. If we say let’s give an average figure between 1000 lira and 50000 lira varies.
How Is Soil Surveying Done?
Many methods have been developed to conduct ground surveying. The most common is taking samples and drilling and seismic refraction masw to determine the physical properties of the Earth. The job of ground research is to examine the area under the ground where the structure will be made. Ground surveying is carried out by examining the under foundation within the existing structures.
The most widely used ground research methods;
- Doing ground drilling
- Finding VS and VP speeds with seismic refraction and MASW
- Make Presiyometre
- Making dilatometers
- Resistivity to make electrical resistivity
- GPR georadar study
- Opening a research pit
- To examine soil and rock samples in laboratory
- Measuring microtremor with three component XYZ seismic vibrational sensors
- Doing ERT tomography(electrical tomography))
- To do plate loading experiment
- Finding optimum water level and maximum dry unit volume weight with Proctor and sand cone experiment
- To make observational studies with current geological information and observations if there is no machine equipment
- To have knowledge with the natural direct current values of the place with SP(self potential). Electricity is the method.
- IP (inductive polarization) electrical resistivity devices to obtain electrical information of the depths of the earth. There are two types; the first is to measure by changing the frequency value. The second is to measure the condition of the place in the time environment by measuring the charge discharge.
Who Does The Ground Surveying?
Geological engineers, Geophysical engineers and civil engineers do the soil surveys. A soil survey requires the signature of 3 professional disciplines. Ground surveying works for ground research drilling under construction, Sounders, Sounders, drivers. It supervises geological and/or geophysical engineers in case of need during the construction of the drilling. Apart from drilling, seismic refraction, seismic masw, microtremor, rezisitvite works are done with electronic measurement instruments.
Why Is Ground Surveying Done?
Soil survey is done in the land, in the parcel, in a certain area. Ground surveying is needed for many reasons.
Home, housing, buildings, villas, apartments, country houses, schools, places of worship, mosques, hospitals, barns, bridges, dams, hydroelectric plants, wind power plants, dams, industrial plants, industrial buildings, sports facilities, machine foundations, shipyards, protection, tunnels, roads, highways, waterways, city infrastructure, etc for every kind of art structure and ground studies for the construction project are required. Ground surveying is required in order to make the necessary calculations to keep the slopes stable. In addition, soil surveying is required within the application projects of the methods such as piling, injection, jetgraut which are necessary for the improvement of the ground. Excavation before excavation, soil survey is required for difficulty/ease of excavation.
What Is Ground Study? How Is It Done?
In short, ground survey is ground survey. In 2019, the name was changed in the earthquake regulation and the ground data report.
How Is The Soil Survey Report Prepared?
Ground surveying is prepared in two stages. In the first stage, information is collected by measuring the land from the parcel. In the second phase, the field land data obtained is compiled in the office environment and the ground data report and geotechnical report are created.
How Is Building Floor Surveying Done?
Ground survey/ground data report is prepared before building is constructed. In addition, ground survey is done in case of need within existing buildings.
How Is Soil Survey Drilling Done?
Ground study involves sampling from the ground. Ground research drilling can be done with any type of drilling equipment that meets these conditions.
In our country, there are some ground drilling machines placed on tractors. Tracked drilling machines have been developed for areas where field conditions are difficult and for mining. More common in ground surveys are drilling machines that are on trucks. Seabed ground exploration drilling is done by drilling machines removed on pontoons.
Drilling machines are usually driven from engines with high diesel torque. Drilling machine consists of hydraulic and mechanical equipment.
What Is The Study Based On The Development Plan?
1/5000 and 1/1000 zoning plans are made in advance of each type of area to be constructed. At this stage, the geological and geophysical survey based on the 1/1000 zoning plan is done. These studies usually cover large areas. The conditions of the ground in the area where the work is done are determined. Many physical properties of the ground, groundwater condition, seismicity states are determined. The proper place of construction is called the appropriate area. The place opened to construction by taking precautions is called a precautionary area. The terms of the measure are determined. If there are very bad ground conditions which are objectionable for construction, this area is closed to settlement if the land is too sloping and is called unsuitable area. All these studies are determined by geological and geophysical engineers with the opinion of the relevant institutions.
Groundwater Exploration With Resistivity Electric Resistivity
Water exploration is also carried out with the resistivity device used by geophysical engineers in underground research. This device is an electrical method and can receive data up to hundreds of meters. The layers of the locality are determined. Units such as clay, silt, sand, gravel, rock, block and cracks are identified. As a result of this, depth is proposed for water drilling using geological information.