The electrical resistivity method is an effective method in determining the conductive or resistant geological structures of the underground. In this method, the ground is given current from a pair of current electrodes and the ground
What is ERT (electrical resistivity tpmography)?
The electrical resistivity method is an effective method in determining the conductive or resistant geological structures of the underground. In this method, current is given to the ground from a pair of current electrodes and a potential field is created in the ground and the apparent resistivity values are calculated by using the difference between these potentials and the given current measured from the other pair of potential electrodes. In inclined regions, lines perpendicular to the structure are selected in 2-dimensional measurements in order to determine the shear surface boundary as well as the conductive and resistant structures. As it is known, clayey units cause a shift in the direction of the slope due to the effect of the trigger forces. The method of Electrical Resistivity in determining groundwater level and clayey units is the preferred Geophysical method in landslide research because it gives precise results. The resistivity values of geological structures in lateral and vertical directions can be easily determined by the electrical resistivity study in 2-dimension.ERT is a multi-electrode method and is measured with advanced devices. The number of electrodes between 20 and 72 is widely used. More 24-electrode and 48-electrode methods are applied. 2D and 3D three-dimensional underground models can be formed.ERT is mostly used in landslide research. It is also used in archaeology and in the discovery of pipes etc.of all kinds of underground structures.It is an advanced geophysical method and device. Underground tomography up to 100 meters can be created.
WHAT IS GPR (GRAUT PENETRATION RADAR) GEORADAR?
Within geophysical methods, the ground radar method is a high-frequency electromagnetic method used for Near-Surface shallow investigations. GPR radars are easy to use and collect data very quickly. The high resolution two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) representation provides a detailed and fast underground display, while data collection does not cause any damage to the workspace. The method can be applied very easily without damaging the environment. With this method, the location and depth of the structures can be determined much more clearly, especially 3D imaging and complex structure regions with the special structure to decide and can be presented with a very effective image because of the characteristics of all shallow research, the most used geophysical method in recent years. Treasure hunters prefer this device. Radars work by generating electromagnetic signals through the transmitter antenna, (transmitter). Waves advancing within the ground any space etc. when faced with structures, they come back up by reflection or scattering and are recorded with the help of the receiving antenna, control unit and recorder on the surface. Ground radars are a device that is used at low cost, fast use and without causing any damage to the environment. The uses of this device are as follows:; ice thickness in the study of Archaeology and ancient ruins (cave, cellar, gold, tunnel) in the field of biology and Biophysics, in the determination of solutions for bridge, construction, land mines in the study, the environmental impact and environmental imaging, forensic, geotechnical surveys burial place in the survey, the lower structure in the study of karst structures in finding that the determination of the locations of the waste pipes in the streets, in mineral exploration, lakes and rivers don of fractures in the study, land roads, airports, railroads, and sidewalks, in the investigation of sedimantological structures, in the search of tunnels, in the search of underground cavities, in the investigation of volcanic movements, in the field of Agriculture, in the investigation of fracture-crack systems in marble quarries, can be listed as. It has also been widely used in fault and landslide research in recent years. It is an engineering device that is used effectively in solving many underground problems. Different brands and models are produced in a limited number of countries around the world.
What is seismic MASW (Multi analysis seismic wave)?
It is an interpretation technique used to find the speed of S in the data obtained in the study of refraction. Physical properties of underground layers (shear modulus, elasticity modulus, compressibility modulus, natural oscillation period, seismic magnification, poisson ratio etc.) is directly related to shear (S) speed. Therefore, determination of s-velocity changes of subsurface layers is quite important in terms of geotechnical engineering. In recent years, the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method has been widely used alongside the seismic refraction method in determining s-velocity changes.The masw method is seen as the only alternative method, especially in cases where seismic refraction method cannot be applied. With seismic refraction method, MASW records can be collected and greater depth of research can be obtained by preserving the sequence geometry used in measurement retrieval. Other advantages of the method include fast data collection, easy data processing, and low speed problem solving.
What is seismic REMI?
Masw-active source line measurement is carried out in order to determine S wave velocities from geophysical studies carried out within the scope of the ground survey report. Surface waves have, until recently, been characterized as noise in other seismic methods and removed from the data. In later years, due to the developing technology and software, the information carried by the surface waves began to be examined. It has been an effective way of calculating the shear wave, indicative of the strength of the ground, and has taken important roles in various research. Methods such as Remi and microtremor are effective methods used in shear wave calculations based on surface waves.But in these methods, the source is external noise (wind, traffic, etc.)), the source is uncontrolled and many difficulties are encountered during the processing phase of the received data. At this point, the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is used in shallow ground investigations. The biggest advantage over other methods is that the source is controlled. S wave velocity structure of the ground can be determined using active and passive welded surface wave methods. There are two steps to this. The first of these is the determination of the dispersion curve of the area under study. The purpose of all surface wave methods is to obtain the dispersion curve of the area being studied. The dispersion curve is different for all methods.